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The Ontario Securities Commission (OSC) and the Autorité des marchés financiers (AMF) have signed on to global regulators’ efforts to beef up cross-border enforcement.

At the latest annual meeting of the International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO) in Sydney, a couple of Canadian and U.S. regulators signed on to IOSCO’s enhanced multilateral memorandum of understanding (EMMoU), which expands the enforcement powers that regulators can use to combat misconduct and protect investors.

“These powers were introduced in light of the new enforcement challenges created by growing cross-border activity and technological developments in securities markets,” IOSCO noted.

The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and the U.S. Commodities Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) joined the OSC and the AMF, along with regulators from Korea and the Bahamas, in signing the EMMoU.

With these latest additions, there are now 11 regulators that have adopted the enhanced edition of IOSCO’s MMoU, which was introduced in 2017.

Four new signatories also signed IOSCO’s original MMoU in Sydney, bringing the total to 123.

At the annual meeting, global regulators convened to discuss a range of emerging policy issues, including cryptoassets, fintech, sustainability, data privacy, market fragmentation, asset management and retail distribution and digitalization.

Earlier this week, IOSCO published a report on regulating crypto markets. It also said that it’s developing investor education material to help regulators demystify crypto assets to retail investors.

In terms of fintech, the group reviewed its plans for work on distributed ledger technology, ethics in artificial intelligence and machine learning, Regtech and encouraging innovation.

IOSCO’s board agreed to publish a report that aims to identify potential gaps in cyber security, and to examine the evolving role of market makers, including incentives from trading venues for providing liquidity.